2012 Special Issue of Canadian and International Educations Theorizing International Education: (Shifting) Contexts, Concepts, Methods Dedication to Joe Farrell by Marianne Larsen
Exploiting globalization while being exploited by it: Insights from post-Soviet education reforms in Central Asia (Sarfaroz Niyozov and Nazarkhudo Dastambuev)
Building on an examination of comparative and international literature and their research and development experiences, the authors highlight a number of continuities, changes, and issues between Soviet and post-Soviet, international and Central Asian experiences of borrowing and lending of education reforms. Even though Central Asian actors and institutions are not totally helpless victims and though international experts and NGOs appear well-meaning in these globalizing education transfers, the processes are leading toward reproducing global and local dependencies and inequalities. The trajectory of education reforms in Central Asia echo those of other developing countries. In response, the authors urge local policy makers and comparative educators to join in a critical and reflexive strategic venture of re-encountering and reshaping the global and neoliberal offers to serve the needs of interconnected local and global justice.
North-South International Education Partnerships: Two Canadian Projects with Tanzania (Aniko Varpalotai, Chantal Phillips, and Marian Roks)
The following is a review of two Canadian-Tanzanian international partnerships working in Tanzania within the education sector. Project TEMBO (Tanzania Education and Micro-Business Opportunity) supports the development of formal and non-formal education for girls and women in collaboration with other local and international non-governmental organizations. The Huron University College/University of Dar es Salaam project is strengthening post-secondary educational opportunities in collaboration with civil society organizations and local government. Both projects are focused on literacy in the broadest sense to achieve critical skills in civic engagement, poverty reduction, problem solving, decision-making and reducing gender imbalances, and as such are in line with the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Achieving improved access to information and educational opportunities for Tanzanians that support poverty reduction are the shared objectives of these two projects. This article will outline some of the methods which have been used to successfully offer access and educational opportunities despite ongoing challenges and constraints within the project environments.
The role of language in processes of internationalization: Considering linguistic heterogeneity and voices from within and out in two diverse contexts in Ontario (Julie Byrd Clark, Eve Haque, and Sylvie A. Lamoureux)
This multi-voiced paper considers the role of language and linguistic heterogeneity in relation to larger discourses and processes of internationalization and globalization in Canadian higher education by examining two particular educational contexts in Ontario: newly arrived adult students participating in Immigrant language training programs; and Franco-Ontarian students transitioning to post-secondary schools and gaining access to higher education. The authors argue for a multidimensional conceptual approach to theorizing internationalization; one that takes into account the significance of language from the global, transnational and local levels of the social world whereby linguistic heterogeneity is viewed as the “norm” and one that allows for a broader and deeper engagement when considering what international education might mean for citizenship, integration, and linguistic minorities in Canada.
Reconceiving International Education: Theorizing Limits and Possibilities for Transcultural Learning (Paul Tarc, Aparna Mishra-Tarc, Nicholas Ng-A-Fook, and Roopa Desai Trilokekar)
This multi-voiced paper explores the micro-level dimensions of human learning and becoming from transcultural encounters, lessons and/or curriculum under heightened transnationalism. It posits that mainstream approaches to conceptualizing the ‘education’ of international education lack sufficient theorization of difference, sociality, history and learning in trans-local spaces and suggests that there are expanding networks of transcultural engagements to be examined under the umbrella of international education. To explore this reconceived pedagogical landscape of international education three specific cases are presented: an auto-ethnographic reflection on coming into and making sense of one’s international experience, a conceptual framing of internationalizing preservice education curriculum and a qualitative analysis of the pedagogical impacts of undergraduates’ international internships. Each case illustrates the complexities, possibilities and challenges of (framing) learning and becoming in sites of transcultural engagement.
Commentary: Cultivating a defiant global research imagination in international education (Jane E. Kenway)
Book Review: Educating children in conflict zones: Research, policy and practice for systemic change. A tribute to Jackie Kirk (Allyson
Byrd Clark, J. & Dervin, F. (accepted, forthcoming). Reflexivity in Language and Intercultural Education: Rethinking multilingualism and interculturality in accelerating, complex and transnational spaces. The Routledge Language and Intercultural Communication series. London/New York: Routledge.
With the impact of accelerated globalization, digital technologies, mobility and migration, the fields of Applied Linguistics, Language and Intercultural Education have been experiencing different shifts. One shift that still needs to be further explored is that of systematic and coherent reflexivity in researching various phenomena related to notions of language and culture. This unique and timely book thus examines the significance of reflexivity and multimodality, particularly when researching the multifaceted notions of multilingualism and interculturality in education. It represents a serious attempt to merge and bring into dialogue these two vital concepts. The volume also contributes to current critical approaches to certain representations of languages and cultures in identity politics. As such, the authors offer innovative ways of incorporating both reflexivity in teaching, learning, and research. The chapters span a diverse range of educational settings in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe and The United States and make a case for change in research on multilingual and intercultural education and research.
Byrd Clark, J. & Lamoureux, S. (in press). Rethinking multilingualism: Complex identities, representations and practices of Canadian youth moving through plurilingual times in Otwinowska, A. & De Angelis, G. (Eds.) Teaching and learning in multilingual contexts: Sociolinguistic and educational perspectives. (pp.118-145) Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Drawing upon a sociolinguistic multi-sited ethnography and an interdisciplinary approach (Byrd Clark 2009, 2010, 2011), the authors examine the impact of globalization and Official language policies on the construction of identity and the development of linguistic repertoires as an essential component of language education, by looking at the significance of multilingualism through the experiences and symbolic investments of multilingual youth participating in university French language teacher education programs in the multicultural landscapes of Toronto and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, where the population rates have nearly tripled because of high immigration rates during the last twenty-five years. In this chapter, we argue for a multidimensional conceptualization of multilingualism particularly by signifying that individuals’ investments in representations of languages and identities are much more symbolic, complex, and ideological. As such, the participants’ symbolic investments demonstrate how some of their real everyday social and linguistic practices challenge social categories through the complex and (sometimes) simultaneous ways in which they manage, negotiate, and resist discourses of language and power.
Byrd Clark, J. (2011). Toward a policy of heterogeneity: The Journeys of Integration of Multilingual Student Teachers of FSL in Ontario in Plurilingual Times. OLBI Working Papers, volume 3, pp. 1001-1014. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: University of Ottawa Press.
This article details the critical need for a policy of heterogeneity in Canada. Canada is changing, with a growing number of youth with multiple, overlapping, and complex identities and linguistic repertoires. From this end, I argue that we can no longer look at language, identity, or community as separate, static, or fixed categories and in this vein, we need official and public policies that support linguistic diversity and value heterogeneity. Drawing upon my ethnographic and sociolinguistic research which investigates multilingual youth training to become teachers of French as a Second Language (FSL) in Ontario, I demonstrate the importance of sociocultural research as regards multilingualism for language planning and policy, particularly when it comes to creating policies that reflect people’s use of language(s) rather than simply seeing people as language users. In my fieldwork, I have found that the impact of multilingual practices tend to blur traditional boundaries related to languages, identities, cultures and education. This paper contributes to language policy and planning as it aims to put forth new ways of conceptualizing multilingualism in relation to the development of theory, policies, and professional practice in the fields of language education, teaching and public policy.
Byrd Clark, J. (2009). Multilingualism, citizenship, and identity: Voices of youth and symbolic investments in an urban, globalized world. London: Continuum.
Through an innovative and interdisciplinary approach that combines critical sociolinguistic ethnography, multi-modality, reflexivity, and discourse analysis, this groundbreaking book reveals the multiple (and sometimes simultaneous) ways in which individuals engage and invest in representations of languages and identities. This timely work is the first to consider the significance of multilingualism and its relationship to citizenship as well as the development of linguistic repertoires as an essential component of language education in a globalized world. While examining the discourses and interconnections between multilingualism, globalization, and identity, the author draws upon a unique case study of the experiences, voices, trajectories, and journeys of Canadian youth of Italian origin from diverse social, geographical, and linguistic backgrounds, participating in university French language courses as well as training to become teachers of French in the urban, multicultural and global landscape of Toronto, Canada. In doing so, Byrd Clark skillfully illustrates the multidimensional ways that youth invest in language learning and socially construe their multiple identities within diverse contexts while weaving in and out of particularistic and universalistic identifications. This invaluable resource will not only shed light on how and why people engage in learning languages and for which languages they choose to invest, but will offer readers a deeper understanding of the complex interrelationships between multilingualism, identity, and citizenship. It will appeal to researchers in a variety of fields, including applied linguistics, sociolinguistics, language acquisition and linguistic anthropology.
Larsen, M. (2012) “Beyond Binaries: A Way Forward for Comparative Education”, Española de Educación Comparada, 20: 145-164.
Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.
Tarc, P. (forthcoming). International education in global times: Engaging the pedagogic. New York: Peter Lang.
This book illuminates the changing landscape and expediency of international education in global times. Within this larger picture, the book focuses on the educational effects of international encounters, experiences and lessons—the complex processes of learning and subject formation in play during and after one’s international/intercultural experience. These complex processes, hinged on past and present self-other relations, are illustrated by employing the parable of ‘The Elephant and the Blind Men.’ In contrast to more narrow, developmentalist conceptions of intercultural learning, the author attends to each of the linguistic, existential, structural and psychical dimensions of difficulty constituting learning across difference. Becoming aware of, and reflexive to, these dimensions of difficulty and their implications for one’s own learning and resistance to learning, represents the domain of cosmopolitan literacy. The key intervention of this book is to re-conceive pedagogical processes and aims of international education as fostering such cosmopolitan literacy.
Tarc, P. (2012). The uses of ‘globalization’ in the (shifting) landscape of Educational Studies. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(3), 4-29. http://ojs.vre.upei.ca/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/1116/1317
The term ‘globalization’ does more than represent a set of material (and ideological) processes that have impacts on education and schooling. Additionally, ‘globalization’ operates as a conceptual lens or set of interventions, which is significantly impacting academic discourses in Education and in other disciplines. Not only has Globalization and Education (G&E) emerged as a new, trans-disciplinary field of Educational Studies, insights from this field and globalization studies more directly have impacted many other fields of Education. This paper summarizes major impacts of globalization on education and maps out a ‘first-wave’ G&E discourse by analyzing a small set of key texts published around the turn of the century. The paper distills key uses of globalization from this ‘first-wave’ G&E and more recent correctives to clarify the potential applications for—and implications of the ‘lens’ of—globalization for educational scholarship.
Tarc, P. (2011). How does ‘global citizenship education’ construct its present? The crisis of international education. In V. Andreotti & L. M. Menezes de Souza (Eds.), Postcolonial perspectives on global citizenship education (pp. 105-123). London: Routledge.
In this chapter, Global Citizenship Education (GCE) is read as a 21st century variant of international education, invoked as an intervention attuned to the altered conditions of global times. Although the meanings and uses of GCE will vary across contexts of practice and analytic registers, it is possible to sketch out a coalescing zeitgeist in the (neo)liberal Anglo-West in which GCE is to intervene. To better understand the limits and possibilities of GCE and, if possible, strategically guide this intervention in the present, it is useful to differentiate past and present historical moments in which visions and practices of international education are expressed. This chapter presents a historicization of the ‘problem space,’ and animating desires of international education across two distinct historical conjunctures where international education had and has a heightened prominence. I compare and contrast representations of ‘education for international understanding’ of the 1960s and early 1970s with GCE of the contemporary period. To ground my comparative analysis I draw upon the historically shifting expressions of the deeper visions of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and Oxfam’s (2006) Education for Global Citizenship: A Guide for Schools as a prominent and substantive exemplar of GCE. I also symptomatically read a number of expressions that illustrate current conceptions of, and wishes for, the ‘active’ global citizen and for ‘making a difference’ under a (neo)liberal imaginary. Although ‘enabled’ under a neoliberal social imaginary, ‘acting’ as a global citizen warrants examination and critique. Indeed, rather than viewing ‘actions’ or certain learning dispositions as the prescribed endpoints of GCE, it may be more educative to take the complicated conditions, complicities and effects of ‘acting’ in the historical present as a key content focus for GCE.
Varpalotai, A. (forthcoming). A case study of a Canadian NGO’s evolution, challenges and contributions to international education development. In M. Thomas (|Ed.), A child’s world – Working together for a better future. Wales: Aberystwyth University.
International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are becoming an ever-increasing presence involved in educational programs in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established by the United Nations in 2000 have further encouraged such partnerships (Millennium Project, 2008). The Canadian NGO which is the focus of this paper emerged from a vision of promoting the education of girls and the economic empowerment of women within the traditional culture of the Maasai people of rural Tanzania in East Africa. The NGO’s projects have been formally underway since 2004, though ties were first established in 1998 through the education sponsorship of, and subsequent visit with, one Maasai girl. Boards of Directors/Trustees are based in both Canada and Tanzania and registered with each government as legal entities. This study was intended to document and assess the evolution, difficulties, challenges and successes of this NGO and to provide it with feedback and direction as it moves forward. The Canadian directors have recently been involved with a re-evaluation of their mandate and organizational structure. Participant-observation at the Canadian board meetings, several working visits to Tanzania as a member of TEMBO Trust, and interviews with both staff and volunteers along with a literature review provide a better understanding of the roles, challenges, and lessons learned during this on-going partnership.
Varpalotai, A. (2012). Comprehensive School Health / Health Promoting Schools: Local and Global Perspectives. In E. Singleton & A. Varpalotai, Pedagogy in Motion: A Community of Inquiry for Studies in Human Movement. London. ON: The Althouse Press.