Faculty of Education

2013 Presentation Summaries

Below is the list of presenters at this year's symposium. They are listed alphabetically and also included are their programs, presentation title, and abstract.

**Please note the the degree designation is current program, and not a degree already granted.

Ani Amirmooradian Malhami, PhD Curriculum Studies

Academic Literacies as Documenting Becoming through Mixed Genre Texts

This study aims at answering how academics document becoming and/or capture fluidity, complexity and multiplicity through writing. Models of writing in higher education put forth by Lea and Street (1998 & 2000) do not attribute the problem of writing to the issue of how to capture fluidity, multiplicity and complexity through writing. Documenting becoming has many components to it and it is specifically about academics becoming CAP ethnographers and writing CAP texts. CAP texts have multiple layers of meaning. They capture human becoming and elements of truth, feeling and connection. This study focuses on a specific type of CAP text which is a "disruptive poststructural autoethnography" because this type of CAP text uses mixed genre texts and its truth is interobjective. Most importantly CAP texts not only represent the self and/or the other through writing mixed genre texts, but also it deconstructs the self. According to my theoretical concepts and conceptualization of documenting becoming, texts with these characteristics are appropriate to investigate my question which is how to capture fluidity, multiplicity and complexity through writing. This study will use instrumental case study as its methodology. Also, method of document analysis will be used to investigate my research question. The source of data will be already existing published articles. Particular events from these already existing texts will be used with the aim of developing a theory about the process of documenting becoming. To analyze/interpret my data, I will use two techniques of theoretical sampling and data saturation of grounded theory.

Gita Azad, M.Ed. Education Policy

The impact of performance appraisals on occasional teachers' job satisfaction in primary school, London Ontario A performance appraisal is important to teachers' professional development, and to meeting the school's goals or objectives. The main reason for having a performance appraisal is to monitor teachers' performance, motivation and improve schools' goals. Monitoring teacher's performance needs routine documentation, which is accomplished through completing a performance appraisal form. When teachers are aware that the school is watchful of their actions and that they could be rewarded with a change to a permanent teacher situation or other rewards, they are motivated to work harder. Morale is improved when teachers receive recognition or reward for their work. Sometimes an effective performance appraisal helps discover the hidden talents of occasional teachers. The result of effective performance appraisal is occasional teachers' job satisfaction, because job satisfaction needs to include an opportunity for growth and development. As people develop new attitudes and skills, their wants, needs and performance will change. A smart principal will be aware of these changes occurring and will be willing to provide training, job reclassification or a totally new position to take full advantage of the development of the occasional teachers (10 minute management toolkit, 2010). Ontario schools' occasional teachers' performance appraisal is based on, the number of days worked per week, and the number of years worked in total. Thus performance appraisal represents a vehicle to occasional teachers to receive feedback for professional growth and may support the pursuit of a permanent position within the teaching profession. The purpose of this study will to identify whether the performance appraisal method can predict occasional teacher effectiveness and satisfaction in their daily placements. A more established understanding of such predictive relationships may lead to an increase in apparent effectiveness from both the view point of the occasional teachers themselves and the classroom teachers whom they replace. On average a student will spend 5-10% of their school year with an occasional teacher (Duggleby & Badali, 2007). But according to the students, the arrival of an occasional teacher in their classroom is a sign that the day will be a break from learning and the normal classroom routines. For this reason, it is crucial the class time led by occasional teachers be effective, that they have a sense of satisfaction with their job. Also, it is important to ensure that classroom time led by occasional teachers is facilitated in a way that the schedule, routines and teaching and learning goals of the class, as established by the regular classroom teacher, continue as closely to normal as can be expected. In this study I would like to examine performance appraisal factor that may influence the effectiveness of occasional teachers in their day to day teaching and the personal satisfaction of occasional teachers with their job. Effectiveness is based on aspects of how occasional teachers view themselves as able to produce desired outcomes in terms of their teaching. 10 minute management toolkit. (2010). Retrieved from Performance Appraisal : How to talk about job satisfaction: http://www.10mmt.com/2010/performance-review/how-to-talk-to-your-staff-about-their-job-satisfaction/ Duggleby, P., & Badali, S. (2007). Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 1(53), 22-23. Board, D. P. (n.d.). PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FOR LONG TERM OCCASIONAL TEACHERS. Retrieved from Instructions to Occasional Teacher: http://www.dpcdsb.org/NR/rdonlyres/DD0FB826-153F-4496-A65A-921A0B0A668A/98713/LTOEvaluationFormHR2.pdf

Yann Benétreau-Dupin, PhD Philosophy

This roundtable discussion will consist a presentation about the Rotman Institute of Philosophy, our work in education, and our project ideas. Our K-12 Education outreach committee hopes to serve as a resource for teachers who would like to include the history and philosophy of science, and critical thinking in their curriculum. We will be a resource in two main ways: (1) working with K-12 students through outreach activities designed and run by graduate students and (2) working with primary- and secondary-level teachers on developing strategies that they can use to promote HPS learning in the classroom (for instance, through assistance with curriculum development, for pre- or in-service teachers). We hope to have an open discussion with attendees about possible interdisciplinary collaborations that can be developed around educative projects with the Rotman Institute of Philosophy.

Monica Caldeira, PhD Educational Psychology

Is social success achievable in individuals with autistic disorder?

Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders indicates that individuals with AD must demonstrate "qualitative impairment in social interaction", anecdotal and peer-reviewed evidence suggests that individuals with AD "manage to avoid social isolation...[and are] centrally involved and [enjoy] considerable reciprocity" (Chamberlain, Kasari, & Rotherham-Fuller, 2007, p. 239). Furthermore, as noted by Knott, Dunlop, and MacKay (2006), some children with AD find it easy to make friends, are capable of maintaining close relationships with those friends, and that these friendships exist in more than one setting. As a result this study will explore whether some students with AD have good social skills and are socially successful; and, if so, will outline the factors that appear to contribute to social success. A sample of 35 high school students are being voluntarily recruited via advertisements distributed in organizations providing services to individuals with AD throughout Southwestern Ontario. Each student will be asked to complete a battery of theory of mind and social skill assessments, which will be complemented by a social skill assessment completed by the parent and teacher of each student. Finally, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with each party to determine if the individual with AD is socially successful and what factors may have contributed to their social success.

Jaclyn M. Chancey (University of Conneticut) and Adrienne E. Sauder (UWO), PhD Educational Studies

The National Science Board has put out a call for an increase in the number of STEM innovators in the workforce. In order to pursue STEM careers, students generally need to complete university degrees in STEM fields. The ongoing push for quality math and science education in grades K-12 should result in increased interest and success in STEM fields at the college level. This poster presentation explores the success of STEM majors in attracting and retaining the most academically talented students, based on student records from a large public university in the northeastern United States of America, with particular attention to the role of gender.

Le Chen, PhD Educational Studies

Student voice and school improvement

Educators concerned with student achievement and opportunities must take student views of their educational experience into account in school management and improvement agendas. Recent efforts to study pupil voice and school improvement have provided strong evidence of the significance and value of listening to and respecting young people's contribution in relation to school improvement. This study replicates the 'School I'd Like' competitions (Birkett, 2001; Blishen, 1969) in the UK, but in the Chinese context. The goal was to investigate pupil voice in state schools in China, in a manner appropriate to the Chinese context. Forty students in three schools were involved in the study. The findings indicate that Chinese and British students hold similar views of schooling, though the extent to which the two groups emphasize certain issues is different, and relates to cultural and socio-economic difference between the two countries. Based on my data, Chinese children yearned for better school facilities, a desire related to material and resource issues in China, whilst British students focused more on the purpose of schooling, and the meaning of educational structures and hierarchies. I argue that although the Chinese government has been making certain efforts in relation to educational reforms and school changes, the whole vision of school or schooling in China stays unchanged as before to a large extent.

Emmanuel Chilanga, PhD Geography

Community-based participatory nutrition education, gender roles and child care in Northern Malawi

Under-five child malnutrition is a public health challenge in Malawi. Programs such as promotion of optimal early feeding, control of Vitamin A deficiency and anemia have been initiated to address child malnutrition. Although some progress has been made, close to 49 percent of children are still malnourished. In Malawi, the majority of child care and feeding is done by women who have high workloads and little control over household economic resources. Scholars are striving to find strategies that can motivate and empower fathers to be involved in housework and childcare activities, which can mitigate the underlying causes of child malnutrition. The paper draws on feminist and gender theories, transformational educational approaches and the concept of care to assess whether participatory community-based nutrition education can promote a more equal household gender division of labour and sharing of childcare practices in northern Malawi. The findings draw upon qualitative research conducted in an agrarian community. In-depth interviews and participant observation data were collected from 30 couples before and after a participatory nutrition education program over a 4 month period in 2012. The results show that there are highly unequal gender roles in household work, which are justified with various socio-cultural explanations, but a participatory nutrition educational approach shows potential for involving husbands in some childcare and household domestic work.

Wendy Crocker, PhD Educational Studies

Here and There: Ontario and Mexico as sites of autonomous literacy for Low German speaking Mennonites

The Old Colony Mennonite community (OCM) is a transnational culture that migrates annually between Mexico and areas of rural southwestern Ontario (Quiring, 2009). While the children attend school in each of these jurisdictions, from my experience as an administrator I noted that the OCM children struggled with the expectations of an autonomous model (Street, 1984) of school literacy (i.e. reading and writing) in the public school context. From a research trip to Mexico, I knew that the LGM children had funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff & Gonzalez, 1992) from which they could draw that included multilanguages (e.g., Low and High German, Spanish and some English. This comparative case study explores autonomous school literacy practices across two contexts: public schools in Ontario, and Mennonite schools in Mexico to respond to the question: How do the experiences of OCM compare as students both in Mennonite schools in Mexico and in Ontario public schools? My preliminary findings include: 1) recognition that there is a different locus of control in each setting; 2) privileging of print in different languages between contexts and 3) use of transmissional pedagogy to teach school literacy skills both in Mennonite schools in Mexico and in Ontario public schools.

Patsy Day, M.Ed. Aboriginal Leadership

Grandmother Moons poster

As an Oneida Turtle Clan member and teacher, I look for ways to bring language acquisition and cultural enhancement to beginning learners. In the Haudenosaunee Creation Story, Sky Woman falls from the sky world and is placed onto the back of a giant Turtle that has come to the surface of the water world below. The name used for this continent: Turtle Island came from the Haudenosaunee/Longhouse Peoples' understanding of this beginning. The 13 Grandmother Moons vinyl mat shows my interpretation of the twenty-eight day lunar Cycle of Ceremonies the people follow. Inspiration for a wood puzzle transpired from a poster produced by the Oneida Language and Cultural Centre, which then led to making a board game, colouring book, and many other related teaching tools. Pictographs on the mat translate the Oneida names for the Six Nations, Tree of Peace, tobacco, deer, water drum, and historical events. Each of the thirteen sections on the Turtle's back relates to naturally occurring gifts such as Maple, Strawberries, and Corn which are acknowledged and given ceremony. Around the outside edge of the Turtle are twenty-eight sections reflective of the lunar path of 28 days, seen drawn around the outside of the Turtle. Representations of distinct Kastowa/headdresses of each of the Six Nations are placed above their respective Longhouses, drawn on the edge of the mat. Teachers have found the mat a useful reference for beginning lessons about indigenous history and culture with a question and answer sheet accompanying the mat.

Colette Despagne, PhD Educational Studies

Pluralistic EFL learning approaches in Mexico: Indigenous students' experiences

Research in critical applied linguistics posits that English language learning is closely linked to identity (Norton Pierce, 1995; Norton, 2000; Norton & Toohey, 2004, 2011; Gee, 2000) and power (Kramsch, 2009, 2011; Bourdieu, 1995). This critical ethnographic case study focuses on three Mexican Indigenous students from impoverished rural communities who study a fully funded undergraduate program at a private university. English is a mandatory part of their academic load. The three students are exposed to subjective realities such as discrimination, feelings of inferiority and fear in EFL classes. Findings however show that through the empowerment of their local languages and cultures, they engage in making identity by creating pluralistic (i.e., plurilingual and pluricultural) language learning strategies (CEFR, 2001; ECML, 2012) which allow them to reposition themselves socially (i.e., in the EFL class and outside), resist the subjective experiences when exposed to English, and invest in EFL.

Catharine Dishke Hondzel, PhD Educational Studies

Creative Teachers/ Teaching Creatively: Exploring the validity and utility of the Creativity Fostering Teacher Index

Despite the important role teachers play in fostering creative thinking and adaptive 21st century skills in their students, empirical research in this field is limited. This research study examined the utility of the Creativity Fostering Teacher Index (CFTI; Soh, 2000) as a measure of creativity-fostering behaviours as first conceptualized by Cropley (1997). Survey data from 12 Grades 5, 6 and 7 teachers was compared against field notes, observations and interview data collected in their classrooms. Measurement anomalies were identified which challenge the convergent validity of the scale. Questions are raised with regard to the generalizability of this form of self-report scale data and the validity of self-report questionnaires aimed at gauging teachers' creativity-fostering behaviours.

Xiaoxiao Du, PhD Curriculum Studies

A narrative inquiry into the learning journeys of international graduate students in Canada

In the 21st century, with the fast development of economy and technology, more and more university students are interested in pursuing their graduate studies abroad in order to enhance their knowledge base as well as to build their social and cultural capitals (Bourdieu ,1986) and further succeed in the globalized world. Canada has welcomed millions of international students at post-secondary level and Ontario has been the top choice for international students (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2013). Do Canadian institutions fully prepare for the growing number of international students such as having a culturally responsive curriculum to support the prospective international students? and What are international students' studying experiences in Canada? With these questions in mind, a narrative inquiry was conducted in one faculty at one research intensive university in Ontario. Four Master students and two Ph.D. students at different stages of the graduate programs shared their learning experiences including the reason to purse graduate studies in Canada and their study journeys in Canada. Findings indicate that most participants were excited about coming to Canada for further studies at first; then when they arrived in the Canadian university, they have encountered various degrees of culture shock and felt puzzled about the academic field; later on through self-negotiation and support from peers and professors, they made successful transitions and continued to make progress in their studies.

Nicole Etherington, PhD Sociology

"A Golden Ticket to University"?: A Canadian Case Study of Alternative Public Schools and Implications for Working Class Students

In recent years, the development of the global knowledge economy has rendered post-secondary education necessary for employment and earning potential, with manual labour no longer as prevalent or secure as it once was. Yet, access to post-secondary institutions continues to be stratified based on social class. To support working-class students in obtaining a post-secondary education, some countries have opened alternative public schools geared toward this purpose. This article draws on a Canadian case study of a school for working-class students whose parents do not have any post-secondary education to investigate the discourse surrounding these institutions and their goals. Using a content analysis of newspaper articles and policy documents, I find that while alternative schools certainly have the potential to increase educational attainment amongst working-class students, they may pose significant challenges to working-class identities.

Dru Farro, Theory and Criticism

Robber: Come.

My paper, representing the very preliminary stages of my dissertation research, seeks an answer to the question: Why teach? That is, what is at stake in the pedagogical encounter such that we desire it to be the domain of our care as well as the source of our gratification? Any pedagogical question implies a certain stance with respect to the goals of education. Every pedagogy implies a certain relation to knowledge, to the content of one's discipline, and to its communicability and accessibility. Every pedagogy implies a politics, a regime of authority or leadership, and a group of disciples. And, most importantly, every pedagogy harbors a secret. My paper will explore the secrets of pedagogy by asking the teacher to answer the question: Why teach? This question, if allowed the freedom to wander along the lines not only of the conventional narratives of education's virtues but also along those of the professor's desires, will help us to see what of our pedagogical impulse is repetition, what authentic, and what unconscious. My research draws heavily from the recent work of Deborah Britzman, Peter Taubman, and Stephen Appel as well as the theories of Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Julia Kristeva.

Dawn Fyn, PhD Educational Studies

Tell me a (counter) story: Inuit teachers share their thoughts on education and racism

The forces of colonization that began when early settlers arrived in Canada still continue today (Battiste, n.d.). Historically, Aboriginal People worldwide have suffered at the hands of Euro-Colonizers and even now, in the modern age, issues of cognitive imperialism (Battiste, n.d.) including the appropriation of culture, thoughts, and knowledge (Haig-Brown, 2010), and issues such as meritocracy (Vanouwe, 2007) pervade the academic world leaving both Aboriginal students and Aboriginal Inuit teachers at a distinct disadvantage. Education, in the formalized academic sense is new to the Aboriginal Peoples of North America (Haig-Brown, 2010). Colonization has often occurred through this process of formalized education, encouraging the hegemonic discourse of the colonizers (Haig-Brown, 2010; Smith, 2002; Simon, 2008).These education systems continue reproduce westernized knowledge as the only knowledge and the culture capital of worth (Y0sso, 2005). The belief that local knowledge is not considered valuable seeps into the minds of young Aboriginal students as those people in authority view learning differences as deficits (St. Denis, Silver, Ireland, George, & Bouvier, 2008). This deficit model is strengthened when new non-Aboriginal administrators and teachers move to Aboriginal villages and attempt to tell the experienced Aboriginal teachers everything they are doing that is wrong (Aitken, 2005). This is an ongoing issue in many remote Aboriginal communities and is part of the master narrative. The master narrative? Critical race theory (CRT) believes that the master narrative supports the dominant cultural group by sustaining the unequal balance of power (Yosso, 2005; Solórzano, 1997). This is done by viewing the normative as correct and anything outside of the normative as incorrect, or deficit. This deficit model has damaged the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators. CRT believes that it is more than just seeing the racism, it is also a case that the "largely White teaching staff whose practices, consciously or not, contribute to the racial achievement gap yet who are unable to see what they are doing" (Taylor et al., 2008, p. 9). This research considers the perspective of the Inuit educators and the counter narrative that they created during this research project.

Eradah Hamad, Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

Reading Mental Maps of International Education: A Personal Construct Approach to Discovering the Journey of Studying Abroad

Although international students play an important role in facilitating knowledge exchange and cultural collaboration between different countries, the experience of studying abroad can be challenging for international students. Recent studies about international students have tended to view them as members of relatively homogenous continental groups. However, it should not be assumed that international students from the same continental area will experience the same issues owing to the fact that each country has its own cultural norms, beliefs, and educational system. The primary objective of this study is to examine personal constructs that students use to describe their experience of living and learning in Canada from the perspective of Personal Construct Theory (Kelly, 1955). A more individualized examination of student experience would afford a better understanding of the process of reconciling one set of roles and expectations affiliated with the home country and a different, contrasting set of roles and expectations associated with the host country. The repertory grid technique and a self-characterization procedure are two methods of examining personal constructs. In the current study, these two methods were used to obtain mental maps of the transition experience of six Saudi Arabian Graduate students at a large Canadian university. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the grids showed a two-cluster structure that separated roles between students' home and host cultures, and the characterizations disclosed some of the individual problems faced by these international students while studying in the host culture. It is suggested that pairing new arrivals with the host culture peers would help international students adjust more successfully to their new experiences.

Kathryn Hansen, M.Ed. Educational Psychology/Special Education

"I think we can do better": College instructors preparedness to teach students with learning disabilities

An increasing number of students with learning disabilities (LD) are attending community colleges in Ontario. Accessible education depends on educators having the knowledge and attitudes needed to reduce barriers and provide an inclusive learning environment. This study investigated the perceptions of community college instructors regarding their preparedness to teach students with learning disabilities. A mixed-methods approach used an on-line questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect data from instructors at a large community college in southwestern Ontario. The "Instructor Preparedness Questionnaire" was developed to measure instructors' knowledge about and attitudes towards students with LD. Follow-up interviews with twelve participants provided qualitative data to further explore instructors' perceptions of teaching students with learning disabilities. The results showed that overall instructors' had moderately positive scores on both the attitude and knowledge scales. However, qualitative data revealed that instructors generally felt unprepared for the task of teaching students with learning disabilities. In addition, they had many misconceptions of what constitutes a learning disability and the needs of students with LD. Instructors expressed the desire and need for professional development on the topics of learning disabilities and inclusive classroom strategies. The importance of preparing college instructors with the knowledge and attitudes for teaching in an inclusive education setting is evident. The relevance of this research is indicated in the recent implementation of the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) standard which calls for training for all educators regarding accessibility awareness in course design and delivery. Implications for college administrators, instructors and students are discussed.

Ron Hansen, Catharine Dishke Hondzel, Kathryn Hansen, Kathleen Schmalz, Frances Shamely, Brian Smith, and Beatrix Bocazar

Human Ingenuity Research Group: Parental Perceptions of Children's Creative Behaviours

The goal of Western's human ingenuity project (Hansen, 2008) was to identify the characteristics of innovative people working in the trades, technical professions, and engineering. It aimed to identify the source(s) of innovative traits and better understand which experiences, inside and outside of the workplace, played a role in the development of inventive people. The purpose of the current study was to learn more about parent's perceptions of creativity, and how those perceptions relate to the ways parents choose to foster creativity in their children. This study extends earlier results (Dishke Hondzel & Hansen, 2012) which demonstrated that a child's environment, which includes: community size, national culture, school type, and parents, influence how creativity is developed. Our earlier research showed that children living in rural areas scored higher on a standardized measure of divergent thinking than a comparable group of children living in urban centres.

Adam Hill, M.Ed. Educational Studies

Mono- Dia-logue about Dialogue: A Dialogic Pedagogy and Practice

My thesis will attempt to consolidate and elucidate the concepts of dialogic pedagogy and dialogue, specifically determining how and when they shape, and become, teaching and learning praxis. The principal goal of my investigation is to serve as part of a foundation for future research into dialogic philosophies of education and dialogic practices as instructional alternatives. My thesis will determine and defend testable operational definitions for a dialogic pedagogy and dialogic practice through concept analysis.

There exists a need for such consolidated and elucidated delineations as the current discourses regarding dialogue, let alone dialogic pedagogy, remain substantially fractured. Discourse on dialogue and dialogic pedagogy can be traced all the way back to the Ancient Greek dialectic. From a more or less stalwart foundation in the Platonic dialogues, the quickly discording discourses on dialogue and dialogic pedagogy fractured into largely compartmentalized, mutually exclusive parts. For example, Michael Bakhtin’s (1975) perspective of dialogics, as a literary critic, is often ontologically incompatible with Paulo Friere’s (1970) critical pedagogy, whose outlook often appears incommensurable with Mortimer Adler’s (1927) interpretation of dialectic.

Clarifying the connotations of dialogic philosophies of education and dialogic practices, especially assessing how they can affect teaching and learning, could provide researchers and educators with far more than semantic closure. After all, dialogics, consciously or otherwise, have been, and continue to be, a part of our daily lives as educators, researchers, and students.

Jo Ann Iantosca, PhD Educational Psychology/Special Education

Uniting Early Childhood Screening and Monitoring to Inform Intervention Practices

Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) are capable of implementing child care interventions by aligning screening tool findings from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) with typical developmental milestones from the Early Learning for Every Child Today (ELECT) continuum. This was tested in a multiple-focus group study working with seven ECEs at a newcomer reception centre. ECEs had been using several instruments as is done in high quality child care settings, however there was a reported disconnect between what was being used to holistically examine the children and how this informed the educators goals in the classroom. Participants used a Pre-Intervention Developmental Report created by the researcher to document the connection between screened skills of newcomer preschool children and typical milestone progression. Documenting discrepancies helped ECEs to create intervention goals and potentially fill the gap between current levels of development and what is considered typical. The process of using instruments to inform one another was demystified and ECEs found recurring root skills among the instruments. Finding alignment between instruments was complex due in part to environment in which they were used. Further implications were made regarding the way in which newcomer children exhibit domain related skills differently than the milestones presented on the trajectory.

Melissa Jacquart, PhD

Equality of opportunity, education, and the case study of MOOCs

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are university courses offered online, free of charge, and from an equity perspective, seem to be a start towards a more equitable education system. The aim of this paper will be to evaluate if MOOCs are, from an egalitarian perspective, a more equitable form of education when compared to the current North American (United States and Canadian) college and university systems. I consider the way in which we should understand the value of education as a good, either instrumental or intrinsic, and what principles of equality should be held regarding its distribution I propose we hold Rawls's principle of equality of fair opportunity along with Dworkin's level playing field conception of distributive justice, when considering equality of opportunity in higher education. In examining the case of MOOCs, I argue that if we are concerned with education as an intrinsic good, then MOOCs greatly decrease inequality. However, if education is instrumental good, then MOOCs are much less able to decrease inequalities. In addition to identifying and examining a broad list of equity problems in higher education, and how MOOCs could decrease these inequalities, I look specifically at the case of gender inequalities and MOOCs.

Genny Jon, MLIS

Library schools provide Masters level professional education to prepare students to be information professionals. Library school programs tend to focus on topics and skills needed for working as librarians in traditional libraries such as public and academic libraries. However, special libraries such as corporate, government, or non-profit libraries, or other organizations also employ library school graduates in a variety of roles. Library schools may be ignoring the requirements of and students' interests in special libraries by focusing on traditional libraries during their professional programs. This presentation will share the findings of a survey of library school students and information professionals employed at special libraries. Survey participants were asked about their level of interest in working in special libraries, and skills and other topics both groups would like to see included in library school programs. Graduates were also asked about the skills used most frequently on the job.

Amanda Kerry, M.Ed. Counselling Psychology

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury with Girls in Tertiary Care: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

This study examined what differentiates girls in a residential treatment program who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) from the girls who do not. Participants included 68 females between the ages of 6 to 17 who resided at a tertiary mental health care facility for children and youth. Secondary data from the Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI) was employed to measure internalizing and externalizing behaviours, histories maltreatment, and family disruptions. The findings indicate no significant differences between the low, moderate, and high risk groups. However, according to the primary caregivers' reports, girls who appear to enjoy themselves are less likely to engage in NSSI behaviours. The clinical relevance of these results are discussed, in addition to how the current findings may guide future research to further enhance our understanding of NSSI behaviours among girls in tertiary care. Keywords: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), Residential Treatment, Gender Informed Treatment

Carol-Ann Lane, PhD Curriculum Studies

Investigate the use of Mobile Technology to Influence Gender Equity in Literacy

Boys' lower literacy level is worldwide and needs attention. According to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2009, for Canada, "the average score for 15 year old students for combined reading indicated female students outperformed males by 37 points" (Brochu, P., Gluszynski, T., & Knighton, T., 2010, pp. 74-75). Comparative results are similar for the world PISA findings "girls outperform boys in reading in every PISA country. In OECD countries, the average gender gap is 39 score points, or over half a proficiency level" (OECD, 2010, p. 16). My research focuses on understanding boys' interests in their daily lives and use of mobile technologies that have potential for literacy value. I also believe a point of feminism maturation has occurred or is forthcoming. For this reason, my concern is to identify existing power relations and bring into perspective a more balanced view of gender without the subjugation of males. I will investigate literature, practice and positioning of normative males in emerging gender power dynamics which may contribute to the understanding of boys' literacy practices. My research question is in what ways does the practice of multiliteracies through mobile technologies manifest itself in gender equality? To achieve this I will investigate to what extent boys choose new technologies (social networking, blogging, smartphones and playing interactive video games) to engage in external activities (outside of school) and whether these interests translate into literacy levels. I will use a qualitative case study approach which may have ethnographic elements as I will explore the external interests and experiences of boys.

Alicia Lapointe, PhD Educational Studies

"I think that everyone deserves human rights 'cause we're all people": Students' Motivations for Joining Gay-Straight Alliances (GSA)

This study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay male's involvement in Gay-Straight Alliances (GSA) at their Southwestern Ontario high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are explored. Queer theoretical perspectives and Kumashiro's (2002) framework of anti-oppressive education underpin the study's purpose, design, and data analysis. Empirical data was obtained from five semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews with GSA members and observation field notes. Content analysis was used to identify core consistencies and meanings in order to make sense of the data (Patton, 2002). Findings suggest that heterosexual allies and queer-identified GSA members play a crucial role in facilitating positive social change in their schools. GSA participation represented a powerful form of student activism because club members created opportunities to challenge homophobia and openly combat normative notions of gender and sexuality in their school communities.

Alicia Lapointe and Jenny Kassen

Martin's Story: Rethinking the Queer Victim Narrative

This is Martin's story; a story of queer activism, not simply queer victimization. This narrative reveals how one gay secondary school student refused to remain passive when he encountered homophobia and prejudice directed at lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people at his school. Martin is not merely a victim, although he has clearly been victimized by fellow students, family members, and even by those he does not know in the larger community. Although, Martin may be considered a victim to some, is he just that? It is my hope that Martin's story will prompt people to rethink the way LGBTQ students are primarily positioned as victims of homophobia in schools - the queer victim narrative. By contrast, this narrative illuminates how Martin's participation in the Gay-Straight Alliance at his secondary school and his individual commitment to confronting the anti-gay attitudes and behaviours of his peers embodies a powerful form of queer student activism.

Allyson Larkin, PhD Social Justice, Gender, and Equity

Mapping dominant discourses in higher education internationalization policy: opportunities and obstacles for international service learning

Internatioanlization of Canadian universities is commonly presented as a necessity to demonstrate excellence, to compete in the global economy, and to maximize the benefits to be derived from the rise of the knowledge economy (Rizvi & Lingard; Knight, 2010; Kenway et al, 2006). Critics of internationalization cite its neoliberal roots and potential to promote western hegemony at the expense of less economically developed countries, while proponents argue for the opportunities created by programming, such as international service learning, (ISL), for increased global awareness or citizenship (Killick, 2007). There is a binary created in framing the internationalization debate as a pro or con; as with much of the literature on globalization and internationalization produced in the Global North, what is missing is the experience and voice of local host partners. The research on ISL typically focuses on the transformative experiences of student participants, or the experiential dimension which contributes to a deepening of learning. This research seeks to problematise internationalization through the notion of international service learning. It will frame ISL through the lens of host partners, to consider how the dominant discourses of internationalization align with or suppress local agendas. Drawing on case study research, it presents ISL as a complex process, facilitated by developments related to globalization including increased ease of and access to travel, and normalized by neoliberal discourses which present international experiences as economic necessities (Peters, 2007). This presentation will consider both the opportunities and obstacles of ISL from the perspective of local host partners.

Jacqueline Lau, M.Ed. Educational Psychology

Healthy development is crucial for children's physical and mental well-being. An environment of social and intellectual stimulation combined with adequate resources and support enable children to perform optimally, equipping them to reach their full potential. However, various social determinants hinder positive development and children's optimal functioning, particularly, poverty. The purpose of this case study is to investigate whether poverty is associated with bullying, students' perceptions of school safety, and a school's adherence to existing bullying initiatives in one elementary school from a high poverty area in London, Ontario Student responses from several sections of the Thames Valley District School Board's (TVDSB) annual Safe Schools Survey, pertaining to mental wellness, perceptions of safety, safe school initiative, and victimization in bullying incidents will be analyzed. An examination of policies and legislation for bullying and safe schools at the school board and provincial level will aid in the assessment of school-based support and adherence to programming. The participant school's Safe Schools Action Plan and empirical evidence from the literature will be consulted. Additionally, educators will be interviewed to gain a better understanding of their knowledge and attitudes on bullying, their perspectives on how poverty affects the school, and their views on program adherence and implementation barriers. The present study is a mixed methods design, in which descriptive and qualitative analyses will be conducted.

Vickie Wai Kei Li, PhD Educational Studies

A border crosser's story: A look into post-secondary English language education in the Hong Kong and Australian context

This presentation draws data from my ongoing PhD study, which is a narrative inquiry into six Hong Kong post-secondary students' English learning experiences. Theoretically informed by Norton's (2000, 2010) work on identity and English learning, this study aims to examine how the interaction within the participants' English classroom have shaped their learning experiences and learner identity. In this presentation, I will explore the learning story of one participant (Gallie), who pursued her post-secondary studies in Australia and later returned to Hong Kong to continue her studies. Gallie's story reveals how she constantly (re-)constructed her learner identity and meanings of English learning during her stay abroad. Her story also shows how she perceived herself in relation to other Hong Kong English learners upon her re-entry. This study will help raise post-secondary English educators' awareness of students' prior English learning experiences and multiple identities.

Leichelle Little, PhD Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

Genetics remains one of the most difficult topics for students to study. It has been shown that learners familiar with terms like genes and DNA may not understand the underlying concepts properly. A recent study performed by Boujemaa and colleagues (2010) found that even well-educated university students, who all had taken a course in molecular genetics, had difficulties distinguishing the structure of genes and their functions. Of the 94 students surveyed, only 18 knew what DNA was actually responsible for. Previous research focusing on students' understandings of these core genetic theories suggest that these concepts are obscure, involving exposure to microscopic objects and processes that occur beyond the student's everyday lives and experiences. This failure to connect these concepts to concrete ideas has been associated with student's leaving the sciences. An instructional design has been created for a touch-screen tablet program which can serve as an interactive educational resource for students. This interactivity gives students the opportunity to manipulate and visualize otherwise intangible objects like cells and genes: a phenomenon known as reification. This concretization allows students to see genetics as a real dynamic process and develop and understanding of the complex systems being modeled.

Aruba Mahmud, PhD Educational Studies

Challenging Islamophobia through Education

Islamophobia in North America and Europe has markedly increased in recent years, particularly since 9/11. This presentation will outline a proposal for a research study which aims to address this increasing Islamophobia by seeking to understand what role educators can, and do play in both perpetuating and challenging negative attitudes and stereotypes about Muslims and Islam.

Pam Malins, PhD Educational Studies

Elementary Teachers' Attitudes about Addressing Gender and Sexual Identities: An Investigation of Childhood Innocence

This research study proposes to investigate the attitudes of teachers and parents regarding the discussion of gender and sexual identities in the elementary classroom. Previous research reveals a debate about childhood innocence, with some suggesting children are too young to discuss gender and sexual identities, while others feel that young children are not naïve of gender roles and sexual identities. Research also indicates that attitudes of educators shape the attitudes of children. Furthermore, the five educators who participated in my Masters research all suggested that parents greatly influenced pedagogical decisions. I propose to follow-up on these findings using a mixed methods approach: online questionnaires will be distributed to educators and parents across London, Ontario, followed by qualitative, open-ended interviews with five parents and educators respectively. Through a lens of queer theory, data will be thematically analyzed with attention given to resistance to as well as support for queer pedagogical practices. This study will contrast data obtained from parents and educators for similar or differing attitudes about gender and sexual identities discussed at the primary-school level. If parents are supportive of these classroom discussions, but educators reveal resistance, this gap needs to be addressed.

David Mara, PhD Educational Studies

Both 'boys' and 'students with special education needs' are identified as groups potentially at risk of lower achievement in Realizing the Promise of Diversity: Ontario's Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy (2009). Despite these concerns, there is very little empirical research regarding the intersection of disability and masculinity in education. The proposed case study is intended to 1) identify some of the structures framing the experiences of boys with disabilities, and 2) explain how boys with disabilities constitute themselves as masculine subjects in public school system. This poster presentation highlights methodological and theoretical issues that are to be considered when investigating how boys with disabilities constitute masculine subjectivities in schools.

Lori McKee, M.Ed. Curriculum Studies

Print Literacy Opportunities for Young Children in a Multimodal Literacy Ensemble

This study explored the opportunities for print literacy learning within multimodal ensembles that featured art, singing, and digital media. Study questions concerned how reading and writing were practiced and what learning opportunities were afforded for them during an intergenerational program that united 13 kindergarten children with 7 elders to work through a chain of multimodal projects. Data were collected through ethnographic tools in the Rest Home where the projects were completed and in the children's classroom where project content and tools were introduced and extended by the classroom teacher. Themes were identified through the juxtaposition of field texts in a multimodal analysis. Results indicated that the ensembles afforded children opportunities to improvise and refine their print literacy practices through a process of rehearsal. The study is designed to contribute to the nascent, yet growing body of knowledge concerning print literacy practices and learning opportunities as conceptualized within multimodal literacy.

Fiona Meek, M.Ed. Counselling Psychology

A Comprehensive Mental Health Training Format for Adult Education Teachers

The present study investigated the needs of adult education staff within a local school system in order to identify the most appropriate means of assisting the staff with dealing with mental health issues of adult students. This study utilized a mixed method design, using both quantitative measures and qualitative measures to gather data. The study was divided into three separate studies, which build on each other. An initial focus group was conducted in order to identify the participants' concerns, which also provided a direction for the content of the needs assessment survey that was administered to the entire population of adult education teachers in the board. Analyses of the surveys indicated that the participants felt that they had inadequate mental health training; they witness a significant amount of student mental health issues; and that building a sense of community within their classroom was valuable. Two 2-hour workshops were designed based on the needs identified by the staff. An evaluation of the workshops indicated that the workshops were valuable and further training was desired. By educating teachers about students who are learning in the context of mental health challenges, we can make a difference in academic engagement and success for learners, as well as increase the safety and teaching efficacy for educators.

Stephanie Oliver, PhD English

Stop and Smell the Roses: Incorporating Smell as a Multisensory Learning Tool in the University English Classroom

Traditionally, most university instructors - particularly those in English departments - use didactic, or "chalk-and-talk," teaching methods organized around readings and lectures. Yet numerous studies suggest that incorporating multisensory learning techniques in the classroom can more effectively promote student learning. Research shows that smell is a particularly powerful learning tool, as the olfactory sense is deeply connected to memory and emotion. However, many instructors overlook scent in the classroom. My research suggests that smell has a unique relationship to language and representation that makes it particularly useful as a tool for teaching English concepts. Scents are typically constructed as purely visceral, subjective phenomena that escape our linguistic system, but research shows that olfactory perception is culturally mediated. My paper combines research on smell as a multisensory learning tool with studies on smell's relationship to language to explore how instructors can productively use scent in the university English classroom. I specifically argue that olfactory learning tools need not be limited to teaching texts or ideas that deal explicitly with scent. My paper shows how scent can be used to teach literary concepts and issues of language and representation.

Jessica O'Reilly, M.Ed. Multiliteracies and Multilingualism

The Tutors Tell: An Exploration of Trials and Triumphs

My intended research will be based out of a small, community-run literacy organization located in Sarnia, Ontario. Currently, this literacy organization utilizes community volunteers to act as one-to-one tutors to the adults who pursue literacy development services. Many of these tutors do not have a background in teaching or adult education. As such, many tutors express feelings of anxiety and confusion relating to their tutoring roles, yet they also tend to describe their work as fulfilling and impactful. My preliminary research has identified a lack of qualitative data gleaned directly from volunteer literacy tutors. As such, I plan to identify and explore the difficulties and triumphs that existing tutors express through private interviews, group discussions, stories and biographical texts. The data collected in this project is intended for use in the development of a comprehensive tutor-training program which addresses the needs and issues expressed by the tutors themselves. Since community-based literacy programs are increasingly relying upon the services of volunteer tutors, the findings of this study, while not generalizable, may be highly suggestive of the needs of volunteer tutors and the types of support through ongoing training and support that might be most beneficial to them.

Katherine Reif, M.Ed. Counselling Psychology

The Use of Technology and Electronic Media in Adolescent Dating Violence

Electronic communication and social media have dramatically changed the way in which individuals communicate with one another. Through this shift, they have opened the doors for inappropriate and damaging behaviour to take place. Cyberbullying occurs when the internet is continuously used to insult or intimidate a person or persons in order to hurt them in a deliberate manner (Valkenburg et. al., 2010). Other inappropriate online behaviours such as cyberstalking and cyberharassment are also included within this definition. Most of the research to date has focused on cyberbullying as it occurs in the context of friendships and significantly less has been conducted on how it relates to intimate relationships. In many ways, online communication is a continuation of offline social interactions. This is particularly true in intimate relationships, where the online environment facilitates the way in which individuals who are or were dating continue to correspond. This closer proximity between individuals, however, enables abusive and controlling behaviours within these relationships to occur outside of face-to-face contact. Since technology and social media have become so widespread within this generation, it may be difficult to decipher which behaviours are inappropriate within a dating relationship. These lines may be even more blurred with the younger, adolescent population. This current study therefore seeks to examine whether or not individuals minimize the consequences of cyberbullying, the point in the relationship at which cyberbullying is the most likely to occur, as well as gender differences in cyberbullying behaviour.

Jennifer Richardson, PhD Educational Psychology/Special Education

Examining the influence of educational placement on the school-based relationships, sense of school belonging, and emotional outcomes of students with disabilities

In recent history, there has been a trend in education towards the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in general education classrooms. Several studies have been conducted to examine the social outcomes of inclusion. However, many of these studies used peer nomination techniques in order to determine the inclusion of students with disabilities rather than examining the quality of peer relationships in these settings. Other researchers have sought out to compare the social and emotional outcomes of students in various inclusive or special education settings. However, none of these studies included the addition of a qualitative component to gain an understanding of the students' perspectives regarding their educational placement. The study proposed in this report will therefore use both quantitative and qualitative methods to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of students with disabilities in both inclusive and special education settings. The theoretical design of the proposed study is based on a model provided by Juvonen which summarizes research findings in relation to the associations between student behaviours, school-based relationships, sense of belonging, and school engagement (2006). The proposed study, however, will not focus on student behaviour, but will instead examine the effect that educational placement has on the school-based relationships and sense of belonging of individuals with disabilities. This presentation will outline the proposed methods of this study and will allow for open discussion regarding the proposed research questions and methodology.

Jennifer Richardson, PhD Educational Psychology/Special Education

Perspectives of participants in a community drama group for adults with disabilities

This presentation will focus on one aspect from a larger project which investigated whether a community-based drama group for adults with disabilities enhanced their perceived social and personal development. A multiple-case study approach was used with each member of the drama program being viewed as a single case. A final summary of the cases was then used to determine the overall effectiveness of the program. Included as participants for this study were: (a) drama group members, (b) parents/guardians, and (c) instructors of this drama program. Data collection included the use of standardized measures, questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and observations for each case. This presentation will focus on the interviews conducted with drama group members regarding their participation in this drama program.

Maya Salloum, M.Ed. Educational Studies

Balanced Bilinguals' Unique Emotional Expressiveness

In the contemporary globalized world, with diverse situations of language contact emerging, bilingualism is taking on dynamic new forms, yielding a new kind of bilinguals: balanced; those who are equally (Cook, 1992; Hamers & Blanc, 1989) or almost equally (Pavlenko, 2005; Grosjean, 1998) proficient in two languages. Adopting a stance of resistance to the monolingual bias (Pavlenko, 2005) and with a view to refining the frameworks applied to the study of bilinguals (Grosjean, 1998), this research examines how balanced bilinguals process and express their emotions in each of their languages, proposes to build on the contentious definition of balanced bilingualism, and elaborates further on this notion. The study is an ongoing qualitative case study incorporating narrative inquiry. Using the narratives and autobiographical memories of five female and male balanced bilinguals of different language pairs and age groups, this study seeks to construct a thick description of these bilinguals in order to provide a deep insight and snapshot of the time, place, and individual. Ultimately, this study seeks to better understand how these balanced bilinguals perceive their emotional processing and expression through their language socialization experiences. The implications of the study add another voice to the call for independent, bilingual-specific models when studying the basic relations of the bilingual self, such as cognition, emotion and identity, to language. The implications also call for more emotionality in L2 curricula (Dewaele, 2005). Furthermore, this study highlights that emotional intelligence is equal to cognitive intelligence (Salovey, et. al., 1995).

Adrienne E. Sauder and Monica Caldeira

Examining preservice teachers' knowledge of exceptionalities: Preliminary results

Since the introduction of inclusive education, teachers are increasingly interacting with students with exceptionalities. In order to make the inclusive experience successful, it is imperative that teachers have a positive attitude toward their students with exceptionalities. Factors that may influence the teachers' positive attitudes include sufficient experience with the various populations (Campbell, Gilmore, & Cuskelly, 2003; Megay-Nespoli, 2001), as well as a substantial base of knowledge in regards to each of the exceptionalities (Jobling & Moni, 2004; Marshall et al., 2002; Romi & Leyser, 2006; Ryan, 2009; Sharma, Forlin, & Loreman, 2008). It remains to be determined, however, if preservice teachers have accurate knowledge of the exceptionalities and what knowledge they tend to retain and what knowledge they tend to overlook. This study will explore the accuracy of preservice teachers' knowledge of exceptionalities, the breadth of the preservice teachers' knowledge of exceptionalities, and what characteristics within each exceptionality the preservice teachers focus on and/or overlook. Participants from a sample of 77 preservice teachers will be asked to complete weekly reflections throughout an 18 week educational psychology/special education course, which will be analyzed for themes related to their knowledge base. Results of this study can improve the quality of preservice programs, ensuring preservice teachers are provided with accurate knowledge pertaining to each of the exceptionalities they will be expected to interact with in their inclusive classrooms. The purpose of this roundtable session is to explore the literature surrounding teacher candidate knowledge and discuss preliminary data analysis results.

Allison Segeren, PhD Educational Studies

The High-Quality/High-Equity Discourse in Education Reform: Leassons from Ontario, Canada

Ontario, Canada has been lauded internationally for its ability to achieve a strong balance between academic excellence and equitable educational practices. This paper problematizes recent claims of Ontario as a high-quality/high-equity education system and a model of education reform. Policy sociology in education acknowledges the emerging global policy field in education including new scales of policy production and new policy players. Critical policy analysis in education recognizes that globalizing education policy discourses shape national education policies. This study uses critical discourse analysis when examining policies and institutionalized texts. Policy statements and official documents serve as the primary sources of data and were collected from the OECD and the Ontario Ministry of Education. Ontario represents a cautionary tale. Despite a longstanding commitment to equitable public education, the normative and material consequences of neoliberal globalizing reform are exerting pressure in Ontario.

Donna Swapp, PhD Educational Studies

Exploring the current nature of a school principal's work

In this presentation, I outline emerging ideas for my doctoral research in the field of educational leadership. The overarching aim of the research is to arrive at a fuller understanding of the influences behind principals' leadership practices by examining key sociomaterial and sociopolitical dimensions of their work. The research is informed by an interpretivist, qualitative paradigm which privileges principals' construction of meaning regarding their work reality, and situates contextual, naturalistic inquiry as pivotal in generating such knowledge. Further, a critical, poststructural lens also deconstructs metanarratives of a "good" principal, and problematizes the agency of bureaucratic power in effecting principals' leadership practices by shaping how school principals think and act within the ambits of the school principalship. The research also engages with actor network theory (ANT) which allows for the exploration of educational practices and interactions as networks that are shaped through educational materials and discourses, and is concerned with investigating the micro-connections (translations) and the negotiations of these networks. Specifically, observations, interviews, audio journals and document analysis will be employed to gather data on up to five elementary and secondary school principals who have at least five years' experience in administration, and three years' experience as a school principal. Such an exploration of the complex, micro-dimensions of principals' negotiations at local school sites is pivotal for facilitating understanding of the contextual nature of principals' work practices and thus making more informed efforts in developing the study and practice of this important field.

Donna Swapp, PhD Educational Studies

Exploring the emergence of school principals' leadership practices

In this presentation, I outline emerging ideas for my doctoral research in the field of educational leadership. The overarching aim of the research is to arrive at a fuller understanding of the influences behind principals' leadership practices by examining key sociomaterial and sociopolitical dimensions of their work. The research is informed by an interpretivist, qualitative paradigm which privileges principals' construction of meaning regarding their work reality, and situates contextual, naturalistic inquiry as pivotal in generating such knowledge. Further, a critical, poststructural lens also deconstructs metanarratives of a "good" principal, and problematizes the agency of bureaucratic power in effecting principals' leadership practices by shaping how school principals think and act within the ambits of the school principalship. The research also engages with actor network theory (ANT) which allows for the exploration of educational practices and interactions as networks that are shaped through educational materials and discourses, and is concerned with investigating the micro-connections (translations) and the negotiations of these networks. Specifically, observations, interviews, audio journals and document analysis will be employed to gather data on up to five elementary and secondary school principals who have at least five years' experience in administration, and three years' experience as a school principal. Such an exploration of the complex, micro-dimensions of principals' negotiations at local school sites is pivotal for facilitating understanding of the contextual nature of principals' work practices and thus making more informed efforts in developing the study and practice of this important field.

Sirous Tabriz, M.Ed. Educational Studies

The role of policy borrowing in the internationalization of education

The world is now in a state of continual change, with globalization resulting in an increasing degree of connection, coalescence, and collision between various cultures and ideologies. To be a productive and successful country, with a positive effect on the global society, it may be beneficial to have an education system that not only provides relevant skills and knowledge but also promotes mutual understanding and cooperation. Globalization and its tools are important considerations for helping Eastern countries to develop their education system. Conflict and contention can occur between countries of different parts of world, and citizens who cannot use their native culture in a global society may lose motivation and eventually drop out from global society. Government policies about education as a part of global society are implemented in different ways that affect the country's successfulness and the quality of life for its citizens. Therefore, education policies should be developed that mitigate potential problems arising from differences in approach regarding globalization as well as promote mutual respect and cooperation. The structure of this oral presentation is as follows. First, some background information is presented, including a discussion on globalization, policy borrowing, policy learning, and policy dialogue. Second, policy borrowing is discussed as a method through which developing countries could create their own education policies. An example of policy borrowing is presented, in which the International Baccalaureate programme is used as source of inspiration. Finally, this oral presentation ends with a summary and some suggestions for moving forward.

Clara Tascon, PhD Educational Studies

Internationalizing Educational Research in Canadian and Latin American Universities: A Multiple Case Study

This study examines how internationalization plays out in graduate education programs in Latin America and Canada. My research aim is to find out how Canadian and Latin American universities can strengthen their relationships through education research partnerships. Pursuing this goal, my research questions are: (a) What are the rationales for internationalization in graduate education programs of universities in Canada and Latin America? (b) What practices in educational research have been developed or proposed regarding internationalization of higher education in both regions? (c) How can those practices in educational research be matched to exchange and build knowledge together between Canadian and Latin American universities? This is a multiple case study involving two universities in Canada, two in Brazil, and two in Colombia. It includes interviews and focus groups with the research personnel and faculty members and students in the graduate education programs of the different universities within each country. It also includes documents and national and international reports from different data sources. The qualitative analysis entails categories and coding according to the information collected and the researcher's categorization. The analysis develops within and across cases. The results of this study contribute to understandings about the rationales, challenges, and developments, as well as, existing obstacles and potential opportunities to further research partnerships for knowledge exchange and innovation in comparative and international education. This study is useful for both international scholars and policy makers. Key Words: Internationalization, higher education, educational research partnership, multiple case study, comparative and international education, Canada, Latin America

Michael Taylor, Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Diabetes Education: How does the type of healthcare provider affect the disease outcome?

INTRODUCTION: As a chronic disease, diabetes mellitus is frequently diagnosed in the population; approximately 6.8% (2.4 million) of Canadians aged 1 year and older are currently diagnosed, and this prevalence is expected to grow. While the disease can be managed effectively through dedicated treatment regimens, diabetes in any form still presents a large economic burden on the Canadian healthcare system, and a physiological encumbrance within the human body. Managing diabetes involves the frequent use of several different healthcare providers; primary care physicians, medical specialists, psychologists, dieticians, and diabetes educators are just a few examples. Moreover, each of these healthcare professionals provides varying degrees of health education to diabetes patients regarding their current disease statuses, treatments, and future outcomes. AIMS OF PROPOSAL: The goal of the current study is to decipher the determinant differences among healthcare providers that are associated with relative successes in patient and treatment outcomes. The primary focus of the project will be to determine education factors that are correlated with a reduction in elevated plasma glucose levels for diagnosed diabetes patients (type 1, type 2, prediabetes, and gestational). METHODS: Using vital linkages between data provided by the National Physician Survey, the annual Canadian Community Health Survey (a proxy for healthcare utilization), and data collected from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (to determine diagnoses and patient outcomes), stepwise regressions (backward and forward) will be conducted to determine the correlates of education level factors. PROSPECTIVE PRIMARY CORRELATES: Demographics, disease duration, co-morbidities, education content, and environmental context.

Summer Thorp, M.Ed. Educational Studies

The Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development and the right of First Nations students to access post-secondary education

The federal First Nations (FN) post-secondary education (PSE) policies in Canada are not defined by legislation which allows the FN PSE programs and funding to remain discretionary. In 2007, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development (the Committee) released a summative report, No Higher Priority: Aboriginal post-secondary education in Canada. Using a critical policy analysis approach, this study examines the policy positions and evidence presented during the meetings of the Committee, the summative report, and the response of the Harper government. The analysis focuses on the right of FN students to access PSE. The findings are framed around the context, texts, and consequences of the education policy approach of the Harper government. There is little literature that analyzes the proceedings of the Committee and no literature that focuses on the role of the Committee in examining federal FN PSE policies. This research will contribute to a greater understanding of the influence of the activities of the Committee on federal FN PSE policies. The study also will contribute to an understanding of how governments respond to the testimony of witnesses and, ultimately, construct policy.

Elizabeth Torrens, PhD Sociology

Gendered Harassment and Education: A Content Analysis of the Ontario Ministry of Education and the Toronto District School Board Harassment Policies

This paper looks at the issue of gendered harassment in the educational context through a content analysis of relevant Ontario Ministry of Education and the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) policies. The goal of this research project is to investigate the extent to which these organizations address gendered harassment in schools. Grounded in a social constructionist understanding of gender and sexuality in conjunction with a theoretical understanding of the power of language, this paper analyzes three Ministry documents and three TDSB documents through a summative and directed content analysis. While these documents do indicate that these educational organizations are aware of the issues, this analysis highlights some of the remaining gaps and language components that need to be addressed to establish enhanced policy initiatives that would be beneficial in targeting the gendered bullying that continues to exist within the everyday school context.

Mark Tse, Music Education

The work concept and the wind band

Leading wind band educators have been pre-occupied for the last century on commissioning, composing, performing and recording original wind band pieces of artistic significance (About WASBE, 2012; Battisti, 2002; Goldman, 1961; Hansen, 2005; Scott, 1995). These efforts have been driven by a desire to gain recognition as artistic equals to the orchestral, operatic and choral worlds, but despite a century's worth of efforts, they have largely been unsuccessful with the exception perhaps of the academic world. The band world is trapped in a modernistic fetishization of "musical works", basing the meaning of their musical existence on a particular outlook that is historically specific, and therefore perhaps outdated and counter to their ultimate goals. In the revealing philosophical and musicological book The Imaginary Museum of Musical Works, Goehr makes a strong case that the concept of a 'musical work" only cemented around the 1800s, and has since had a regulative effect on the world of traditional Western art music. As with other regulatory concepts, its hold is so complete that one is unlikely to perceive the nature of its bondage until we step back and acknowledge its presence, development, and subsequent implications. This presentation will critique the internal tug of war between wind band educators and highlight some important questions that need to be asked to get them back on track.

Matthew Vandermeer, M.Ed. Counselling Psychology

Secondary Traumatic Stress and Alexithymia in High-risk Professions: A Proposal

This project will focus on the relationship between alexithymia and secondary traumatic stress (STS). Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by poor emotional awareness (Taylor, 2000). Higher rates of alexithymia are found in populations with mental health issues (Leweke et al., 2011). STS is a trauma reaction where an individual acquires symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through exposure to a traumatized person, rather than through exposure to initial trauma (Figley, 1995). STS has been identified in a number of professions with high rates of exposure to traumatized clients. In a meta-analysis of the literature, Frewen et al. (2008) found a positive association between alexithymia and PTSD. Based on this evidence, and the conceptual similarity between PTSD and STS, a similar relationship is anticipated between STS and alexithymia. If the current conceptualization of alexithymia as a stable personality trait holds true, it is expected that alexithymic traits will predict the development STS among professionals. This study aims to answer two questions: Is alexithymia associated with STS, and what is the nature of the alexithymia-STS association? These questions will be investigated using a pretest-posttest design. A cohort of interdisciplinary university student trainees entering high-risk professions (teachers and social-workers) will be tested for alexithymia and STS before and after exposure to trauma clients during their internships. This research aims to fill knowledge gaps regarding the alexithymia-STS relationship. It is important to investigate these relationships to reduce stigma of stress reactions among high-risk professionals, and inform clinical practice to prevent or treat STS.

Adrienne Vanthuyne, Phd Curriculum Studies

Reshaping the Traditional View of French Language Pedagogy in the Digital Age: An Investigation of Student Teachers' Perceptions of Multilingual and Multicultural Teaching

Teaching within a second language environment in the digital age has become more challenging as student teachers’ repertoires now require pedagogical practices to integrate French language varieties across Canada, and the multilingual, multicultural students learning French as an additional language. As a result, there are a growing number of students with multiple identities, making it necessary to follow the pedagogical experiences and development of future language teachers. Many French teachers feel unprepared to teach in a multicultural classroom, and further research is required to support the training of new teachers in Faculties of Education to understand the needs of children who speak neither French or English as a first language (Byrd Clark, 2012; Cummins, 2003, 2006; Duff, 2007; Lapkin et al., 2006). By identifying and investigating ways to understand French teachers as language teachers and learners, and the sustainability of teaching in a multicultural and multilingual digital age, we can improve upon French language pedagogy and offer more support for student teachers (Byrd Clark & Vanthuyne, 2012). The main objective for this research is to close the existing gap of multicultural education within French language pedagogy (FLP) in Canada and better prepare student teachers to teach within a digital, multilingual, multicultural classroom. Through an explanatory mixed methods research approach I will investigate student teachers’ perceptions and experiences of teaching French, their knowledge and familiarity in integrating culturally responsible, multilingual, multicultural pedagogies, and information technologies to create a more inclusive learning environment.

Pierre Marie Carolyne Verret, M.Ed. Comparative International Education

A comparative analysis of the implementation of Education for All (EFA) policies in two countries: Barbados and Ghana

This study's goals are to analyze Education For All (EFA) policies in these two Global South countries, Barbados and Ghana, and compare their adaptation, their implementation processes and the outcomes, in conjunction with UNESCO's EFA goals. The research design used to carry out this project is a comparative case-study as it provides an understanding between the context and the processes, the structures and the actions pertaining to EFA in these two countries. This comparative case-study is based on a document analysis as a method for data collection and analysis with a critical democratic and a post-colonial perspective. Preliminary data have shown that factors that have contributed to these countries' progress towards EFA goals are multilevel and multidimensional. Strategies aiming at economics and finances, politics, administration, education and pedagogy, human resources and non-human resources, and culture have had positive impacts on the EFA implementation. At the end of this project I hope to determine whether or not there is anything that can be learned of practical value for other countries which have, thus far, been unable or struggling to meet their EFA goals in terms of early childhood care and universal primary education of quality, gender equality, literacy and lifelong learning. Keywords: education for all (EFA); UNESCO; policy implementation; policy outcomes; Barbados; Ghana; comparative case-study.

Mithila Vidwans, PhD Educational Studies

Internationally educated teachers in Canadian classrooms

Canada and the United States are becoming home to individuals from all across the world. Professional sectors including education have been witness to diverse populations for a number of years now. In addition to diverse students, a large group of internationally educated teachers have also arrived in the hope of joining the Canadian workforce. Given our increasingly diverse classrooms, stakeholders have expressed an urgent need to have a teaching body that mirrors the diverse student body. However, internationally educated teachers continue to experience a high rate of unemployment and underemployment (Deters, 2009). Chassels (2010) points out that only 19% of internationally educated teachers are fully employed. It is suggested that the identity of the internationally educated teacher including language and accent are sometimes incorrectly conflated with their intellectual ability. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare the language used in the classroom by internationally educated teachers with that of Canadian born teachers during instruction to investigate whether there are differences. The theory of linguicism provides an appropriate framework for this study. This will be a mixed-methods study employing interviews of both sets of teachers and corpus analysis of the teachers' recordings in the classroom. The main objective of this study is to dispel the myths suggesting that external aspects of teacher identity such as accent are related to language proficiency. A review of related research will be presented.

Jamie Warren, M.Ed. Counselling Psychology

First Nations Youths' Experiences with Wellness: A Four Directions Approach

First Nations youth are a growing population at risk for multiple outcomes that affect their well-being. The effects of colonization and the residential school legacy continue to impact First Nations communities today, creating a cycle of intergenerational trauma to affect the next seven generations. As First Nations youth are at a social and economic disadvantage for maintaining balance in well-being, the purpose of this study was to identify through the Medicine Wheel teachings 1) what youth saw as contributors to well-being, 2) their vision for well-being, and 3) ways to achieve their vision. Using a qualitative approach, the results described the reality of wellness amongst First Nations youth in a holistic, cultural view. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with five First Nations youth in a rural First Nations community in Northern Ontario. Five themes emerged that were related to their experiences with wellness, including Balance Strategies and Challenges, Coping Strategies, Emotional Balance, Worldview, and Motivation, using a qualitative content analysis procedure. It was determined that the voices of First Nations youth are powerful, significant, and must be listened to. If an imbalance continues to affect the lives of First Nations youth, the imbalance will also be reflected in Canadian society. Further initiatives are needed to support and empower our First Nations youth on their journey to becoming tomorrow's leaders.

Chloe Dawn Weir, PhD Educational Studies

The phenomenon of self-directed teacher professional development

The postmodern society in which we live, demands that schools effectively transform the lives of students and produce learners who are critical thinkers, to advance the development of the society. Teachers therefore, have a principal role to play and must be alert to the changes in this global society in order to effectively educate children. The professional development of the teacher is important therefore if one considers that the outcome of schooling is student success. Teacher professional development is an integral role in any system of education because this directly impacts teacher quality, student learning and student achievement. This paper focuses on self-directed teacher professional development, particularly as it relates to elementary school teachers. Professional development is an integral part of the Ontario Ministry of Education’s mandate for teachers. Professional development days are included in the schools’ yearly plan and teachers have an obligation to participate in the seminars. However, self-directed teacher professional development is also valued by teachers whose primary goal is to improve their pedagogy, and provide exciting, effective and authentic learning experiences for their students. Self-directed teacher professional development is driven by the teacher’s own desire to improve his or her learning, and is important because of the agency it affords teachers. Knowledge is powerful because of its ability to change, empower and shift paradigms and self-directed teacher professional development can be a powerful tool in facilitating teacher learning and enhancing self-efficacy. This proposed research will utilize qualitative inquiry to understand fully the concept of self-directed teacher professional development.

Keywords: teacher development; self-directed teacher; professional development; qualitative research; self-efficacy

Sarah Wilson, M.Ed. Educational Studies

The Policy and Politics of Aboriginal Education: Critical Analysis and Critical Policy Text Analysis of Ontario Aboriginal Education Initiatives

This article examines the Ontario Ministry of Education's Aboriginal education initiatives: Ontario Ministry of Education policy document, Ontario, First Nation, Metis, and Inuit Education Policy Framework (2007) and its companion document, Building Bridges to Success for First Nation, Metis, and Inuit Students (2007), in respect to improving the education outcomes of Aboriginal students in the Ontario public school system. The article will critically analyze (1) the historical context of Aboriginal education, (2) Ontario policy text and discourse, and (3) the implementation process of the education initiatives. The results of this study reflect inequalities and discrepancies in the developed policy and in the implementation of the provincial government's policy initiatives.

Christina Yarmol, M.Ed. Curriculum Studies - Art Focus

Improving Pedagogical Practices in Art Classes: Listening to Voices of Exceptional Students to Inform Art Pedagogy

The purpose of the study was to explore the pedagogical practices that fostered engagement for exceptional students in high school Visual Arts and Technology programs. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed to gather stories from former students. These key informants acted as active agents in their own storied responses which were triangulated with field notes from the researcher’s own “lived-experience” and the literature surrounding the topic. The researcher is a practicing artist, Art and Special Education teacher who has worked extensively with exceptional learners and recorded her experiences during the interview process. The researcher drew from the precepts of literacy engagement theory and the idea that Art is a language. The major finding was that students with physical exceptionalities can be more deeply engaged in Visual Art and Technology programs if careful consideration is given to media employed, contemporary Art education practices, teacher/student relationships including the teacher’s perspective of students with disabilities, Universal Design for Learning concepts in physical classroom organization and curriculum presentation. The results of this Art and Technology educational research can be of significance to educators as they guide and support the curriculum in any inclusive classroom regardless of subject matter.

Bailing Zhang, PhD Equity and Social Justice

The shaping of students' notions of higher education in the global age: The case of Chinese university students

Through critically examining the cases of two Chinese universities with different geographical backgrounds and distinct teaching/research capacities, this study explores how China' national education agenda, the quest for world-class universities, is nuanced differently in different school contexts, and how this policy agenda has influenced students' ideology construction and social change. Critical policy analysis (2010) proposed by Ball (1994, 2012) is employed to analyze the complexity of the enactment of a national policy in the local context. Foucault's notion of power relations is drawn upon to facilitate the exploration of students' conception/ideology construction (Foucault, 1993). Data collection starts with a critical document analysis, followed by semi-structured interviews with students from the two universities under research. This study creates an applicable framework to understand the interplay of global, national, local and individual factors involved in social conception production and reproduction in China and beyond. It identifies and addresses significant issues regarding the problems emerging from the market-driven mode of education, raises critical awareness and reconsideration of the values and roles of higher education.